Fortress yog Dab tsi yog lub fortress?

Cov txheej txheem:

Fortress yog Dab tsi yog lub fortress?
Fortress yog Dab tsi yog lub fortress?
Anonim

Cov phab ntsa muaj zog ntawm cov fortresses thaum ub sawv tsis khov rau ntau pua xyoo, ua rau tib neeg nco txog nws yav dhau los tsis meej. Cov vaj tse txaus ntshai thiab impregnable, bewitching nrog lawv txoj kev pom ib leeg, yog cov tim khawv ntsiag to ntawm ntau lub sijhawm ua. Nyob rau hauv ib lub sij hawm, lawv tau txhim tsa los tiv thaiv qee thaj chaw thaum lub sij hawm ntev siege los ntawm cov yeeb ncuab pab tub rog. Yog li, ntau lub fortresses hauv keeb kwm tau muaj npe nrov ua tsaug rau kev tiv thaiv: Izmail, Naryn-Kala, Brest Fortress thiab lwm yam. Tab sis kuj tseem muaj cov tuam tsev uas muaj npe nrov dua li tsev loj cuj: Ntauwd, Parisian Bastille, Peter thiab Paul Fortress. Yog li ntawd, lub fortress yog dab tsi, thaum twg nws tshwm sim thiab nws tau hloov li cas nyob rau hauv lub sij hawm, cia peb sim ua kom paub nws.

Definition of fortress

Ib lub fortress yog ib hom ntawm fortifications ntawm ib tug tub rog-tiv thaiv xwm, tiv thaiv ib tug tej thaj chaw, lub nroog los yog kev sib haum xeeb. Nws txoj haujlwm tseem yog los xyuas kom muaj kev tswj hwm thiab lub zog ntawm thaj chaw uas twb muaj lawm. Ua qhov chaw tseem ceeb tshaj plaws, nws tau nruab nrog txhua txoj kev tsim nyog thiab cov kev cai los tiv thaivntev siege thaum hostilities. Nyob rau lub sijhawm muaj kev thaj yeeb nyab xeeb, lub fortress tau muaj ib lub chaw ruaj khov ruaj khov kom muaj kev tswj hwm dav dav hauv thaj chaw ib puag ncig.

Tsis zoo li lub tsev fuabtais medieval, uas yog ib qho kev txuas txuas ntxiv nrog lub tshav puam uas muaj txhua yam koj xav tau, lub fortress yog ib qho kev faib av nrog cov tsev fortified, surrounded los ntawm phab ntsa siab. Txawm tias ua ntej pib ntawm lub xyoo pua 20th, fortresses yog ib qho chaw ruaj khov rau cov tub rog ntawm cov tub rog thaum muaj kev kub ntxhov ntawm kev ua tub rog. Cov tsev khaws khoom nrog cov cuab yeej ua tub rog tau nyob ntawm lawv thaj chaw thiab, yog tias tsim nyog, lawv tau them rau qhov kev xav tau thiab kev xa tawm ntawm tub rog.

cov phab ntsa tiv thaiv
cov phab ntsa tiv thaiv

Qhov tshwm sim ntawm cov qauv tiv thaiv

Cov tsim ntawm cov fortresses niaj hnub no yog cov fortifications unpretentious nyob rau hauv pem hauv ntej ntawm me me tib neeg kev nyob sib tham rov qab mus rau lub primitive era. Nrog rau kev nce zuj zus ntawm tib neeg lub neej, nws yog ib qho tseem ceeb uas yuav tsum tau tsim kom muaj kev tiv thaiv kev tiv thaiv ntawm cov neeg nyob ib puag ncig uas tsis muaj kev sib raug zoo. Thawj qhov kev tiv thaiv fortifications tau tsim ua lub laj kab ruaj khov los ntawm tag nrho cov khoom muaj nyob ntawm tes. Rau feem ntau, cov cav ntoo tau siv, uas tau muab tso rau hauv daim ntawv ntawm palisade, tab sis cov phab ntsa ntawm ntoo lossis pob zeb thiab av ramparts kuj tau xyaum. Nws tsis tuaj yeem hu ua lub fortress, tab sis lawv tiv tau zoo nrog txoj haujlwm tiv thaiv. Tom qab ntawd, cov kwj dej tob pib ua ntxiv rau cov laj kab, uas, yog tias ua tau, tau ntim dej.

Tiv thaiv thawj qhov kev sib hais haum thaum muaj kev tawm tsamcov yeeb ncuab tau ua los ntawm cov neeg nyob hauv lawv tus kheej. Nyob rau lub sijhawm tom qab, nrog kev tshwm sim ntawm cov nroog thiab xeev, txoj haujlwm no tau coj los ntawm cov tub rog tshaj lij, uas ua rau muaj kev xav tau los txhim kho txoj kev tiv thaiv.

celtic forts
celtic forts

Fortresses ntawm ancient civilizations

Nyob rau xyoo pua 13 BC, lub hwj chim loj ntawm cov neeg Hittites tau txhim tsa lub laj kab zeb nrog cov square yees nyob rau hauv tam sim no Qaib Cov Txwv. Nyob rau hauv ancient Egyptian kev vam meej nyob ib ncig ntawm 1500 BC, fortified vaj tse ua los ntawm av nkos cib nrog square yees thiab muaj zog rooj vag tau tsim los tiv thaiv sab qab teb ciam teb. Pib txij xyoo 16 mus txog rau tiam 12 BC, cov xeev me uas kav tebchaws Greece muaj lawv tus kheej tiv thaiv.

Nyob rau sab hnub poob, thawj lub fortresses pib ua nyob rau hauv lub xyoo pua VI BC thiab sawv cev rau tag nrho cov fortifications. Celtic forts nyob rau hauv toj tau muaj txoj sia nyob zoo rau niaj hnub no thiab qhia meej txog cov qauv sab hauv nrog cov kab hauv av thiab labyrinths. Maiden Castle nyob rau sab qab teb ntawm Askiv (Dorset County) zoo li yog ib qho ntawm cov muaj sia nyob ntawm lub fortress los ntawm Roman lub sij hawm. Nthuav av nkos thiab embankments tau lined nrog lub laj kab ntoo muaj zog, txawm li cas los xij, lawv tsis tuaj yeem tiv thaiv cov neeg Loos. Cov conquerors sai sai ntes cov nroog thiab tsim lawv lub hwj chim los ntawm kev tsim cov duab plaub nyob rau hauv feem ntau ntawm England.

crusader frontier fortress
crusader frontier fortress

Hnub Nyoog Kawg

Hnub Nyoog Nruab Nrab hauv Tebchaws Europe tau zoo heevLub sij hawm turbulent, kev tsov kev rog tau teeb tsa ntawm qhov me me pretext, uas provoked lub active kev tsim kho ntawm fortresses nyob txhua qhov chaw. Lawv tau tsim nyob rau hauv daim ntawv ntawm fortified castles, nroog thiab monasteries. Hauv kev tawm tsam tsis tu ncua rau lub zog thiab thaj chaw, lawv tau pib ua lub luag haujlwm tseem ceeb. Thaum lub caij nplooj zeeg xyoo 1066, Duke ntawm Normandy tau tawm tsam Askiv nrog kev thov rau lub zwm txwv huab tais. Nws tau txhim tsa nws thawj qhov kev tiv thaiv ntawm lub qub Roman fort ntawm Penvensey, tom qab ntawd los ntawm cov castles ntawm Hastings thiab Dover, uas tom qab ntawd coj nws mus rau yeej.

Feem ntau ntawm cov ntoo fortresses thaum ntxov tau rov ua dua thaum lub sijhawm Nrab Hnub nyoog. Lub pob zeb ntauwd tau ruaj khov dua, thiab nws qhov siab muab cov tub rog tiv thaiv ntxiv thiab pom kev zoo. Lub tuam tsev ntawm lub fortress kuj tau hloov pauv tas li; cov duab plaub, puag ncig, square thiab ntau yam qauv tau tsim. Nyob rau hauv lub XIII xyoo pua, thaum lub sij hawm ntawm lub Crusades, Western architects tau paub txog lub loj loj fortifications ntawm lub Byzantine Empire. Raws li qhov tshwm sim, cov qauv nrog cov qauv tsim qauv pib nce thoob tebchaws Askiv thiab Fabkis.

Lavxias teb sab fortresss
Lavxias teb sab fortresss

Fortifications hauv Russia

Nyob rau hauv Ancient Russia, kev tsim kho ntawm ntoo fortresses nquag pib nyob rau hauv lub X-XI centuries, feem ntau yog nrog rau lub hom phiaj ntawm kev tiv thaiv kev sib haum xeeb los ntawm kev tawm tsam los ntawm nomads. Nyob rau lub sijhawm luv luv, ntau dua 86 lub nroog tau muaj zog. Nyob rau hauv lub neej yav tom ntej, fortresses ua los ntawm pob zeb tau hloov los ntawm ntoo thiab lub ntiaj teb fortifications nyob rau hauv Kyiv, Yuryev, Pereyaslav, Novgorod. Tom qab ntawd lawv tau nyob hauv Pskov, Izborsk, Moscow thiab lwm lub nroog.

Princely tsev hais plaub thiab tsevfeem ntau yog nyob rau hauv lub nroog, thiab monasteries feem ntau tau muab lub luag hauj lwm ntawm ciam teb fortresses. Cov qauv fortified no yog thawj zaug ntawm txoj kab kev tiv thaiv tiv thaiv cov tub rog yeeb ncuab. Nyob ib ncig ntawm Moscow, lub monasteries tuav rov qab inslaught ntawm cov yeeb ncuab: Danilov (1282), Andronikov (1360), Simonov (1379), Novodevichy (1524) thiab lwm yam. Lub fortifications ntawm Lavxias teb sab fortifications yog suav hais tias yog lub tsev teev ntuj los yog princely central tshav dav hlau, enclosed los ntawm ib tug phab ntsa nrog yees; Nws tau raug hu ua krom (detinets), thiab txij thaum pib ntawm lub xyoo pua XIV - lub Kremlin.

fortresses bastions
fortresses bastions

Fortress Evolution

Kev tsim cov phom loj nyob rau hauv lub xyoo pua XIV, thiab tom qab ntawd qhov tshwm sim ntawm cov tub ntxhais hlau (XV caug xyoo) ua rau muaj kev hloov pauv hauv cov qauv ntawm lub fortress. Cov phab ntsa txo qis thiab condensed, thiab cov yees pib ua nyob rau hauv tib qhov siab nrog lawv, thaum nrog ib tug loj cheeb tsam thiab ledge rau pem hauv ntej. Rifle thiab artillery posts rau ntawm phab ntsa yog lub luag hauj lwm rau lub frontal tiv thaiv, txoj kev mus rau lub laj kab yog tiv thaiv los ntawm artillery pieces ntawm lub yees. Nyob rau hauv Lavxias teb sab fortresses, ntxiv rau qhib txoj hauj lwm nyob rau ntawm phab ntsa, tshwj xeeb chav tsev nrog looholes twb ntxiv.

Cov yees ntawm lub fortress yog semicircular ledges ntawm cov phab ntsa, nkag tau los ntawm sab ntawm lub nroog, lawv hu ua rondels. Nyob rau hauv lub XVI-XVII centuries, rondels tau hloov los ntawm bastions, pentagonal vaj tse, thiab tau dav.

Thaum kev tawm tsam rau lub hwj chim pib maj mam thiab kev sib cais ntawm feudal tau los ua keeb kwm (XV - nruab nrab-XVII caug xyoo), cov qauv tsim muaj zog tsuas yog nyob ntawm ciam teb ntawm xeev. Nrog rau qhov tshwm sim ntawm cov tub rog loj thaum tig ntawm 18th-19th centuries, nws tau tig tawm tias cov fortresses tsis tuaj yeem.ua raws li cov tactics tshiab ntawm kev ua tub rog kos duab. Cov yeeb ncuab rog tsuas mus ncig ntawm qhov chaw uas lub fortress nyob thiab txuas ntxiv mus rau hauv nruab nrab ntawm lub teb chaws.

lub tsev qub
lub tsev qub

Kev saib tsis pom

Txawm tias nyob rau hauv Renaissance, lub ntsiab lus ntawm lub fortress raws li ib tug tiv thaiv qauv pib hloov me ntsis. Kev tiv thaiv lub luag haujlwm poob feem ntau ntawm cov forts, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog txhim kho fortifications hauv thaj teb. Nyob rau tib lub sijhawm, qee lub fortresses pib ua haujlwm raws li cov thawj coj hauv nroog lossis raug muab rau hauv tsev lojcuj. Lwm tus tau hloov kho kom zoo rau hauv cov vaj tsev zoo nkauj thiab cov vaj tsev. Nws yog qhov xav paub tias txhawm rau txuag nyiaj, cov khoom siv los ntawm qub fortress feem ntau tau siv. Thiab cov no twb yog cov qauv sib txawv kiag li nrog cov haujlwm tshiab thiab cov hom phiaj.

Txoj hmoo ntawm ntau lub fortresses kuj tau txiav txim siab ua ntej hauv kev tsov rog. Hauv cov xeev, lawv tau pib siv los ua qhov chaw ruaj khov los ntawm kev tawm tsam. Yog li ntawd, tom qab yeej, lawv tau sim tshem tawm lawv kom tsis txhob muaj kev cuam tshuam rau yav tom ntej ntawm kev tsis sib haum xeeb.

Thaum kawg, kev tsim cov hmoov phom maj mam coj mus rau qhov tsis pom tseeb ntawm kev tawm ntawm cov fortresses li kev tiv thaiv. Lawv tsis tuaj yeem tiv taus hluav taws kub hnyiab. Cov fortresses uas dim ntawm kev tsov kev rog tau hloov mus rau hauv lub tsev fuabtais nyob kaj siab lug los yog nws thiaj li los ua qhov chaw ntawm lub nroog uas loj hlob nyob ib ncig ntawm lawv.

Lub fortress Osovets
Lub fortress Osovets

Ntiaj teb qhov tseeb

  • Danish archaeologists tau tshawb pom lub Viking fortress yav dhau los uas tsis tau sau tseg, xav tias tsim kom txog thaum kawgX xyoo pua. Nws qhov txawv txawv architecture qhia tias Normans tsis yog tsuas yog tsis paub ntawv pirates thiab tub sab xwb.
  • Burghausen tau mus txog lub xyoo txhiab xyoo ntawm nws lub neej, ua lub tsev ntev tshaj plaws (1043 meters) hauv Tebchaws Europe. Kev txiav txim siab los ntawm kev tshuaj xyuas, lub fortress yog ib qho piv txwv zoo nkauj ntawm kev tiv thaiv architecture ntawm Gothic style.
  • Nyob Fab Kis teb nyob rau XIII-XIV centuries, muaj kwv yees li 50 txhiab fortresses, fortified lub zos thiab monasteries.
  • Thaum nws muaj keeb kwm nplua nuj, Ntauwd ntawm London tau ua haujlwm tiv thaiv kev tiv thaiv, lub palace, chaw cia khoom ntawm cov nyiaj muaj koob muaj npe, mint, tsev loj cuj, chaw saib xyuas thiab txawm tias lub vaj tsiaj.
  • Keeb kwm ntawm Yerevan pib nrog Erebuni fortress, uas tau tsim los ntawm huab tais Urartu Argishti hauv 782 BC. Nws suav nrog hauv cov npe ntawm cov fortresses qub tshaj plaws hauv ntiaj teb.
  • Cov lus nto moo "Lavxias teb sab tsis tso tseg!" Nws yog ncaj qha ntsig txog kev tiv thaiv ntawm Osovets fortress, nyob rau thaj tsam ntawm Poland. Ib tug tub rog Lavxias me me thaum Tsov Rog Thoob Ntiaj Teb thib 1 yuav tsum tau tuav tsuas yog 48 teev, tab sis qhov tseeb nws yuav tsum tiv thaiv nws tus kheej ntau tshaj rau lub hlis (190 hnub).

Cov npe nrov