Saib qhov siab. Sib ntaus sib tua rau Seelow Heights

History 2023

Cov txheej txheem:

Saib qhov siab. Sib ntaus sib tua rau Seelow Heights
Saib qhov siab. Sib ntaus sib tua rau Seelow Heights
Anonim

Thaum kawg ntawm Kev Tsov Rog Ntiaj Teb Zaum II, Seelow Heights, nyob rau sab hnub tuaj ntawm Berlin, raug cua daj cua dub. Qhov kev sib ntaus sib tua zoo kawg no tau qhia txog kev ua yeeb yam thiab qhov tsis txaus ntseeg rau tus kheej ntawm ntau tus tub rog thiab cov tub ceev xwm ntawm cov tub rog Soviet nyob rau lub sijhawm uas muaj tsawg dua ib hlis ua ntej Kev Sib Tw Loj.

Lub Seelow Heights yog thaj tsam ntawm 50-60 km sab hnub tuaj ntawm Berlin, ntawm sab laug ntug dej ntawm Oder. Lawv ntev yog hais txog 20, thiab lawv qhov dav yog mus txog 10 km. Lawv nce saum lub hav dej tsis tshaj 50 m.

seelow qhov siab
seelow qhov siab

German tub rog fortifications

Lub Seelow Heights ntawm 1945 yog kev tiv thaiv hauv qhov tob ntawm Nazi German pab tub rog. Lawv yog ib tug tub rog fortress uas siv yuav luag 2 xyoo los tsim. Lub luag haujlwm tseem ceeb ntawm 9th German Army yog qhov tseeb los tiv thaiv Seelow Heights.

Nazi cov lus txib tau tsim ntawm no 2 kab ntawm kev tiv thaiv, suav nrog trenches, trenches rau anti-tank riam phom thiab artillery, ntau lub bunkers thiab tshuab-phom chaw, nrog rau cov kev tiv thaiv cov neeg. Cov tsev sib cais tau ua haujlwm ruaj khov. Nyob rau hauv pem hauv ntej ntawm qhov siab muaj ib tug dug anti-tank ditch, qhov dav ntawm uas yog 3.5, thiab qhov tob yog 3 m. Tsis tas li ntawd, tag nrho cov mus kom ze rau lub defensive qauv tau ua tib zoo mined, thiab kuj raug tua los ntawm tus ntoo khaub lig. phom-machine-phom thiab artillery fire.

Lub 9th German tub rog, uas tiv thaiv Seelow Heights, muaj 14 infantry units, muaj ntau tshaj 2.5 txhiab artillery thiab anti-aircraft phom thiab txog 600 tanks.

German Defense

Thaum Lub Peb Hlis 20, General Heindrizi tau raug xaiv los tswj hwm pawg tub rog Vistula. Nws raug suav hais tias yog ib tus kws tshaj lij tshwj xeeb hauv kev tiv thaiv kev tawm tsam. Nws paub ua ntej tias cov tub rog Soviet yuav coj nws txoj kev tawm tsam tseem ceeb ntawm txoj kev loj, tsis deb ntawm qhov Seelow Heights nyob.

seelow heights sib ntaus sib tua
seelow heights sib ntaus sib tua

Khendrizi tsis ntxiv dag zog rau tus dej ntug dej. Hloov chaw, nws coj kom zoo dua ntawm qhov chaw zoo ntawm qhov siab los ntawm qhov Oder ntws. Cov dej nyab xeeb ib txwm muaj dej nyab nyob rau lub caij nplooj ntoo hlav, yog li German engineers thawj zaug rhuav tshem ib feem ntawm lub pas dej ua ke thiab tom qab ntawd tso cov dej ntws mus. Yog li ntawd, lub tiaj tau hloov mus ua swamp. Qab nws muaj peb kab ntawm kev tiv thaiv: thawj - ib tug system ntawm ntau yam fortifications, barriers thiab trenches; qhov thib ob - Seelow Heights, kev sib ntaus sib tua uas yuav kav los ntawm 16 txog 19 Plaub Hlis Ntuj; qhov thib peb yog Wotan kab, nyob ntawm 17-20 km tom qab kab ntawm nws tus kheej.

Thaum pib ntawm kev sib ntaus sib tua, 56th German Panzer Corps suav txog 50 txhiab tus neeg. Tom qab kev sib ntaus sib tua, tsuas yog 13-15 txhiab tus neeg tua rog tuaj yeem tawg mus rau Berlin,uas tom qab ntawd los ua tus tiv thaiv ntawm fascist peev.

Kev tawm tsam ntawm cov tub rog Soviet

Königsberg, lub chaw ruaj khov kawg ntawm East Prussia, poob rau lub Plaub Hlis 9th. Tom qab ntawd, 2nd Belorussian Front, txib los ntawm Marshal Rokossovsky, nyob rau sab hnub tuaj ntug dej ntawm lub Oder. Tom qab ntawd, tsis pub dhau ob lub lis piam, kev rov xa rov qab ntawm cov tub rog Soviet tau ua tiav. Lub caij no, 1st Belorussian Front tau tsom nws cov tub rog tawm tsam qhov siab. Nyob rau sab qab teb, muaj kev tsim ntawm 1 Ukrainian nyob rau hauv kev coj ntawm Marshal Konev.

Assault ntawm Seelow Heights
Assault ntawm Seelow Heights

Nyob rau hauv tag nrho, muaj 2.5 lab tus tib neeg nyob rau hauv cheeb tsam ntawm Seelow Heights, ntau tshaj 6 txhiab Soviet tso tsheb hlau luam, qhov no kuj suav nrog nws tus kheej-propelled artillery installation, 7.5 txhiab aircraft, txog 3 txhiab Katyushas thiab 41 txhiab. Soviet tanks. chim ntawm mortars thiab artillery.

Sib ntaus

Plaub Hlis 16, 1st Belorussian Front tau tawm tsam thiab kov yeej thawj kab kev tiv thaiv. Thaum yav tsaus ntuj ntawm tib hnub, lawv tau ntsib nrog kev tawm tsam los ntawm Germans tiv thaiv Seelow Heights. Kev sib ntaus sib tua hnyav heev. Cov yeeb ncuab reserves tswj kom mus txog qhov thib ob kab ntawm kev tiv thaiv. Qhov ceev ntawm cov phom loj ntawm ob sab ntawm txoj kev loj loj, uas khiav raws qhov siab, mus txog 200 phom ib 1 km.

Seelow Heights 1945
Seelow Heights 1945

Thawj hnub, tau sim ua kom nrawm nrawm ntawm cov tub rog Soviet. Vim li cas ob lub tank tub rog tau coj mus rau hauv kev sib ntaus sib tua? Tab sis qhov no tsis tau coj qhov kev xav tau. Cov qauv txawb thiab cov tub rog tub rog raug yuam kom koom nrog kev sib ntaus sib tua hnyav. Nws yuav tsum tau muab sau tseg tias yuav luag tag nrho cov tank battlesNtiaj Teb Tsov Rog II yog qhov hnyav heev thiab ntshav. Tsuas yog thaum kawg ntawm lub Plaub Hlis 17, tom qab kev npaj dav hlau thiab phom loj tshaj plaws, cov yeeb ncuab tiv thaiv hauv cov lus qhia tseem ceeb tau tawg.

Ring around Berlin

Tam sim no cov neeg keeb kwm sim nkag siab seb qhov kev sib ntaus sib tua ntshav no puas tsim nyog thiab seb Marshal Zhukov puas tau ua qhov yog, tso tseg txoj kev yooj yim dua - qhov thaiv ntawm Berlin. Cov neeg uas muaj lub tswv yim hais tias nws yog tsim nyog mus ncig lub German capital, rau ib co yog vim li cas tsis pom qhov pom tseeb, uas yog lub quantitative thiab zoo muaj pes tsawg leeg ntawm lub nroog tiv thaiv garrison. Lub 9th German thiab 4th armored tub rog, uas coj txoj haujlwm zoo ntawm Oder, suav txog 200 txhiab tus neeg. Nws tsis yooj yim sua kom muab rau lawv txawm tias me ntsis lub sijhawm los thim rov qab rau Berlin thiab yog li dhau los ua nws cov neeg tiv thaiv.

Zhukov's plan

Ib txoj kev npaj, ingenious hauv nws txoj kev yooj yim, tau tsim. Raws li nws, cov tub rog tank yuav tsum tau ua haujlwm nyob rau sab nrauv ntawm Berlin thiab tsim ib yam dab tsi zoo ib yam li cocoon nyob ib puag ncig nws. Nws txoj hauj lwm yog los tiv thaiv kev ntxiv dag zog ntawm cov tub rog ntawm lub nroog German ntawm kev siv nyiaj ntau txhiab tus tub rog 9, nrog rau cov tub rog tshwj xeeb uas tuaj yeem mus txog sab hnub poob.

Tank sib ntaus sib tua ntawm Ntiaj Teb Tsov Rog II
Tank sib ntaus sib tua ntawm Ntiaj Teb Tsov Rog II

Thaum thawj theem, kev nkag mus rau hauv nroog tsis tau npaj. Ua ntej, nws yog ib qho tsim nyog yuav tsum tau tos rau txoj hauv kev ntawm kev sib koom ua ke ntawm cov cuab yeej ntawm Soviet. Tom qab ntawd lub "cocoon" yuav tsum qhib, thiab tom qab ntawd kev tawm tsam ntawm Berlin yuav pib.

Kev npaj txhij txog tig ntawm Marshal Konev mus rau lub nroog German, raws li cov kws sau keeb kwm sau tseg, ua rau qee qhov kev hloov pauv hauv thawj txoj kev npaj. Zhukov. Lub cev xeeb tub "cocoon" tig mus rau hauv ib puag ncig classic nrog kev pab ntawm cov flanks uas nyob ib sab ntawm ob sab pem hauv ntej. Yuav luag tag nrho cov tub rog ntawm 9th German Army tau nyem rau hauv lub nplhaib hauv hav zoov nyob rau sab qab teb sab hnub tuaj ntawm lub nroog. Qhov no yog ib qho kev swb loj tshaj plaws ntawm cov tub rog Nazi, uas yog li undeservedly tseem nyob hauv tus duab ntxoov ntxoo ntawm cua daj cua dub ntawm Berlin nws tus kheej.

Vim li ntawd, lub peev ntawm Thib Peb Reich tsuas yog tiv thaiv los ntawm cov tswv cuab ntawm Hitler Cov Hluas, cov seem ntawm cov tub rog tau kov yeej Oder thiab tub ceev xwm. Nyob rau hauv tag nrho, tsis muaj ntau tshaj 100 txhiab tus neeg. Xws li tus lej tiv thaiv rau kev tiv thaiv lub nroog loj, raws li keeb kwm tau qhia, tsis txaus.

Cov npe nrov