GKChP: deciphering lub abbreviation, keeb kwm

History 2023

Cov txheej txheem:

GKChP: deciphering lub abbreviation, keeb kwm
GKChP: deciphering lub abbreviation, keeb kwm
Anonim

Yuav luag 25 xyoo dhau los txij li lub xeev xwm txheej kub ntxhov tau tshaj tawm hauv xov xwm. Nws yog thaum sawv ntxov ntawm Lub Yim Hli 19, 1991, qhov hloov pauv rau USSR. Cov xwm txheej ntawm lub sijhawm ntawd loj heev. Cov pej xeem thiab cov nom tswv tau koom nrog lawv. Nws tag nrho pib nrog qhov kev txiav txim ntawm ib pab pawg neeg uas dubbed lawv tus kheej lub ntsiab lus GKChP, lub decoding uas yog paub rau txhua tus neeg nyob hauv lub USSR, ntshai los ntawm qhov txaus ntshai ntawm kev ua tsov ua rog Civil War. Dab tsi yog nws: kev sim cawm lub teb chaws lossis, qhov sib txawv, qhov xwm txheej rau nws qhov kev puas tsuaj?

Backstory

Nyob rau lub caij nplooj ntoo hlav xyoo 1990, tom ntej no Congress of People's Deputies of the Socialist Union, tau txiav txim siab tshem tawm tsab xov xwm ntawm Txoj Cai Lij Choj, uas txiav txim siab lub luag haujlwm ntawm Pawg Neeg Communist. Nyob rau tib lub sijhawm, MS tau raug xaiv tsa Thawj Tswj Hwm ntawm USSR. Gorbachev.

gkchp cov ntaub ntawv
gkchp cov ntaub ntawv

Nyob rau lub Tsib Hlis ntawm tib lub xyoo, nws tau raug xaiv los ua tus thawj coj siab tshaj plaws ntawm RSFSR, raws li nws tau tshwm sim tom qab, tus thawj tswj hwm yav tom ntej ntawm Lavxias Federation, B. N. Yeltsin. Nws hloov tawm hais tias cov thawj coj ntawm lub USSR muaj ib tug neeg sib tw nyob rau hauv tus neeg ntawm lub Lavxias teb sab tub ceev xwm, uas ua nyob rau hauv tib lub teb chaws. Twb tau nyob rau lub caij ntuj sov, Boris Nikolayevich tau txais kev tshaj tawm ntawm Sovereignty, uas muab rau cov kev cai lij choj ntawm Lavxias teb sab tshaj rau cov phooj ywg.kev cai.

Parallel rau cov xwm txheej no, cov neeg tawm tsam hauv tebchaws tau pib tawm tsam hauv Tbilisi, tom qab ntawd tsab ntawv tshaj tawm tau tshaj tawm hauv Vilnius txog kev nkag tsis raug cai ntawm Lithuania rau hauv USSR, thiab tom qab ntawd muaj kev tsis sib haum xeeb ntawm haiv neeg Armenia thiab Azerbaijan.

Tag nrho cov xwm txheej no yuav tsum tau ua los ntawm lub teb chaws cov thawj coj. Tom qab ntawd nws tau thov kom hloov kho cov socialist Republics rau hauv cov xeev sovereign. Qhov no tom qab ntawd tau ua ib qho piv txwv rau kev tsim GKChP. Kev txiav txim siab ntawm cov ntawv luv tau luam tawm hauv keeb kwm ntawm kev sib tsoo ntawm lub koomhaum ua lub Xeev Pawg Neeg Saib Xyuas Kev Nyab Xeeb.

All-Union referendum

Thaum kawg ntawm xyoo 1990, ntawm lub rooj sib tham tsis tu ncua ntawm cov neeg sawv cev, Mikhail Sergeevich tau los nrog lub tswv yim ntawm kev tuav tag nrho lub Union nrov pov npav rau kev txhim kho ntxiv ntawm Union of sovereign states ntawm lub plawv ntawm ib tug. rov tsim dua tshiab. Tib neeg cov neeg sawv cev tau txais kev daws teeb meem ntawm kev tuav pov hwm.

Nyob rau lub caij nplooj ntoos hlav xyoo 1991, cuaj lub tebchaws tau xaiv rau kev hloov pauv ntawm USSR mus rau hauv ib lub tebchaws tshiab ntawm cov xeev sovereign. Nyob rau tib lub rooj sib tham, cov neeg ntawm RSFSR tau txhawb nqa qhov kev taw qhia ntawm tus thawj tswj hwm. Tsis ntev B. N. raug xaiv los rau nws. Yeltsin.

gkchp luv luv decoding
gkchp luv luv decoding

Tom qab muaj kev xaiv tsa nrov, cov tub ceev xwm nkag siab tias yuav tsis muaj lub koom haum socialist qub thiab xav tau kev cog lus tshiab rau lub koomhaum. Tsuas yog thaum Lub Yim Hli 20, nws tau npaj los kos npe rau ib daim ntawv los ntawm Gorbachev ntawm lub koom haum decentralized. Thiab nyob rau hnub ua ntej ntawm qhov kev tshwm sim tseem ceeb, GKChP tau tsim, kev txiav txim siab uas tau tshaj tawm rau cov neeg nyob hauv Soviet ua pawg raulub xeev xwm txheej ceev.

Npaj rau lub xeev xwm txheej kub ntxhov

Txoj kev xav, qhov teeb meem ntawm kev qhia txog lub xeev xwm txheej kub ntxhov hauv lub tebchaws los ntawm txoj cai lij choj tau hais ntau zaus los ntawm cov tub ceev xwm xyoo 1990. Nws tau tsiv mus rau lub dav hlau siv tau ib xyoos tom qab, tom qab lub Rau Hli lub rooj sib tham ntawm Supreme Soviet ntawm USSR thiab Prime Minister cov lus ceeb toom txog kev kub ntxhov tob. Tus thawj coj ntawm KGB, tus Minister of Internal Affairs, Minister of Defense hais rau lub xeev xwm txheej kub ntxhov los tiv thaiv kev lag luam hauv lub tebchaws. Txawm li cas los xij, Thawj Tswj Hwm ntawm USSR tsis txhawb nws cov npoj yaig.

gkchp npib decryption
gkchp npib decryption

In the period from 7 to 15 August, V. A. Kryuchkov ntsib nrog cov tswv cuab yav tom ntej ntawm Lub Xeev Pawg Neeg Saib Xyuas Xwm Ceev. Kev txiav txim siab ntawm cov ntawv luv no tseem tsis tau paub txog rau tus neeg ua haujlwm, tab sis cov tswv cuab ntawm kev koom tes tau koom tes nrog kev npaj kev tawm tsam yav tom ntej. Cov pab pawg no tau coj los ntawm Tus Lwm Thawj Coj ntawm USSR G. I. Yanaev.

Mikhail Sergeevich tau so hauv Crimea thaum lub sijhawm no.

Tshaj tawm lub xeev xwm txheej kub ntxhov

Thaum sawv ntxov TV thiab xov tooj cua xov xwm thaum Lub Yim Hli 19, 1991 tau pib nrog kev hais lus ntawm cov neeg tshaj tawm ntawm cov ntaub ntawv tseem ceeb "Cov lus hais txog kev coj noj coj ua ntawm Soviet." Muaj cov ntaub ntawv hais txog qhov ua tsis tau tiav ntawm kev ua tiav cov thawj tswj hwm lub luag haujlwm ntawm MS. Gorbachev, vim yog qhov tsis zoo ntawm nws lub xeev kev noj qab haus huv, thiab hloov lub zog rau Gennady Ivanovich Yanaev.

gkchp transcript los ntawm keeb kwm
gkchp transcript los ntawm keeb kwm

Thaum ntawd yog thaum daim ntawv teev npe ntawm Pawg Neeg Saib Xyuas Kev Kub Ntxhov Hauv Xeev tau suab thawj zaug. Txhawm rau tswj hwm lub teb chaws, lawv tshaj tawm kev tsim Pawg Neeg Saib Xyuas Lub Xeev rau Lub Xeev Xwm Ceev. Nws cov tswv cuab suav nrogcov thawj coj ntawm lub siab tshaj plaws ntawm lub hwj chim nyob rau hauv lub USSR: Prime Minister, Minister of Defense, Thawj Tswj Hwm ntawm KGB, Minister of Internal Affairs, Thawj Pab Pawg Thawj Tswj Hwm ntawm Pawg Kws Tiv Thaiv.

Txoj kev ntsuas

Nyob rau tib hnub, cov hom phiaj tseem ceeb thiab kev ua ntawm Pawg Neeg Saib Xyuas Xwm Ceev tau tshaj tawm. Cov ntawv sau tseg ntawm pawg neeg no tau nyob ntawm daim di ncauj ntawm txhua tus pej xeem Soviet uas txhawj xeeb txog nws lub tebchaws.

Lub hom phiaj tseem ceeb ntawm cov tswv cuab ntawm Pawg Neeg Saib Xyuas Lub Xeev tau tsim tshiab yog txhawm rau tiv thaiv kev kos npe ntawm kev cog lus koom siab thiab kev tawg ntawm USSR. Ntxiv nrog rau kev qhia txog lub xeev xwm txheej kub ntxhov rau lub sijhawm 6 lub hlis, cov kev ntsuas hauv qab no tau pom zoo, tau pom zoo hauv Pawg Neeg Saib Xyuas Kev Kub Ntxhov Hauv Lub Xeev:

  • Abolition of paramilitary formations, Administration and power structures that contradict the Laws and Constitution of the USSR.
  • Qhov tseem ceeb ntawm kev cai lij choj ntawm txhua lub koomhaum.
  • Kev txiav txim siab ntawm kev ua ub no ntawm cov koom haum pej xeem, cov nom tswv uas cuam tshuam kev ua haujlwm ntawm kev ua kom zoo li qub.
  • Tsim kev tswj hwm kev tshaj xov xwm.
  • Tiv thaiv kev tawm tsam, tawm tsam thiab tawm tsam.
  • Qhia rau lub peev ntawm cov tub rog thiab cov tsheb tub rog.

Kev sib cav

Los ntawm D. T. Yazov, thaum sawv ntxov lub yim hli ntuj 19, units ntawm lub Kantemirovskaya tank thiab Taman motorized phom division tau nce mus rau lub peev. Kwv yees li plaub txhiab tus tub rog tuaj txog hauv Moscow los ntawm 12 teev tsaus ntuj, qhov chaw lawv nyob hauv lub nroog pab txhawb nqa lub neej. Cov neeg pib ntshai pib ua tsov rog Civil War.

GKChP decoding
GKChP decoding

Tsis tas li ntawd, cov neeg tua hluav taws tau ntsuas los thaiv Alfa cov tub rog tshwj xeeb hauv Yeltsin lub teb chaws lub tsev. Tab sis tom qabcov ntaub ntawv hais txog dab tsi tshwm sim hauv lub nroog, Boris Nikolayevich txiav txim siab tuaj txog ntawm Tsev Dawb tam sim ntawd. Tus thawj coj ntawm pawg thaiv tau txais kev txiav txim kom tsis txhob cuam tshuam qhov kev tawm mus ntawm Thawj Tswj Hwm ntawm RSFSR.

Tuaj txog ntawm Lub Tsev ntawm Soviets, Yeltsin tshaj tawm tias nws tsis kam koom tes nrog cov tswv cuab ntawm Pawg Neeg Saib Xyuas Xwm Ceev, tshaj tawm lawv tus cwj pwm tsis raws cai. Cov putschists tam sim ntawd xa ib pab tub rog mus rau Tsev Dawb kom ntes nws. Txoj haujlwm hu ua Thunder. Tab sis muaj fiasco: kev tswj hwm cov tub rog tau ploj mus, uas tau hla mus rau Yeltsin sab.

Gorbachev qhov kev ua

Txhawm rau txhawb cov tib neeg nrog lawv cov kev tsim nyog raug cai, Pawg Neeg Saib Xyuas Lub Xeev rau Lub Xeev Xwm Ceev (GKChP) tau ceeb toom rau cov pej xeem txog tus mob ntawm Thawj Tswj Hwm M. Gorbachev. Hnub ua ntej cov xwm txheej muaj hmoo rau USSR thaum Lub Yim Hli 19, cov kws tshaj lij: Baklanov, Varennikov, Boldin, Shenin thiab Plekhanov - mus rau Foros rau Mikhail Sergeevich nrog qhov kawg. Nws muaj nyob rau hauv kev yeem tso siab rau lub hwj chim rau Yanaev. Txhawm rau ua qhov no, cov neeg koom tes tau hais kom Gorbachev tawm haujlwm, yav dhau los tau kos npe rau tsab cai lij choj thov kom muaj xwm txheej kub ntxhov hauv lub tebchaws.

Pawg Neeg Saib Xyuas Kev Ruaj Ntseg Hauv Xeev GKChP
Pawg Neeg Saib Xyuas Kev Ruaj Ntseg Hauv Xeev GKChP

Qhov kawg tsis tau txais, thiab vim li ntawd - qhov kev sib cais tag nrho ntawm tus thawj tswj hwm hauv Foros thaum muaj kev tawm tsam. Gorbachev puas paub txog kev koom tes nrog lub koom haum ntawm Pawg Neeg Saib Xyuas Xwm Ceev? Deciphering keeb kwm ntawm cov xwm txheej no los mus rau kev koom tes ntawm lub tebchaws United States nyob rau hauv lub cev qhuav dej ntawm lub USSR. Hnub ua ntej ntawm kev tawm tsam, thaum Lub Xya Hli, tus thawj coj CIA qub George W. Bush tau mus xyuas lub tebchaws. Nws paub tias nws tau ntsib Gorbachev thiab Yeltsin. Hais txog lawv kev sib thamTsis muaj ib yam dab tsi paub, tab sis lub network txawj ntse raug txib kom txhawb nqa cov neeg koom nrog.

Yog, thiab tus cwj pwm ntawm Mikhail Sergeevich tsis meej meej. Thaum Lub Yim Hli 3, nws tau hais lus txog qhov xwm txheej nyuaj hauv lub tebchaws thiab qhov xav tau los qhia txog lub xeev xwm txheej kub ntxhov, thiab hnub tom qab nws tau mus so hauv Crimea.

Tam sim lub Yim Hli 21, lub rooj sib tham nrog Yi. txog. Thawj Tswj Hwm G. I. Yanaev, uas cov tswv cuab ntawm pawg neeg txiav txim siab xa ib tug delegation mus rau Foros rau Mikhail Sergeevich. Tsis tas li ntawd, lub Supreme Soviet ntawm lub USSR tshaj tawm hais tias kev tshem tawm ntawm M. Gorbachev yog txhaum cai, thiab thov kom Yanaev tshem tawm cov decrees thiab decrees nyob rau hauv lub xeev xwm txheej ceev. Nyob rau yav tsaus ntuj ntawm tib hnub, tau tshaj tawm tsab cai lij choj ntawm kev ntes cov tswv cuab ntawm Pawg Neeg Saib Xyuas Xwm Ceev. Tom qab ntawd, xyoo 1994, lawv tau txais kev zam txim.

Lub Yim Hli Ntuj xaus nrog kev tawg ntawm USSR. Txhua lub tebchaws tau hloov pauv pib tshaj tawm lawv txoj kev ywj pheej. Cov neeg nyob hauv Soviet thiab post-Soviet Union paub cov lus nug: "GKChP yog dab tsi?" Kev txiav txim siab ntawm 1991 npib kuj tseem txuas nrog cov xwm txheej ntawm lub Yim Hli coup, tab sis ntau ntxiv ntawm cov lej tom qab.

Qhov tsuas yog qhov uas cov neeg koom siab ua tiav yog qhov kev tshem tawm ntawm kev kos npe ntawm lub koomhaum kev cog lus. Qhov nyuaj rau kev nkag siab txog qhov tshwm sim yog qhov kev tawm tsam tau pib los ntawm ib qho, thiab xaus los ntawm cov rog tawm tsam.

Numismatics: Pawg Neeg Saib Xyuas Kev Kub Ntxhov Hauv Xeev, cov ntawv sau tseg ntawm lub npib

Lub cev qhuav dej ntawm Union tau sau rau hauv txhua qhov kev ua haujlwm ntawm txhua lub tebchaws qub. Russia tsis muaj kev zam. Nyob rau hauv 1991, lawv pib mint npib nrog cov duab ntawm lub Spasskaya ntauwd thiab lub Supreme Council ntawm obverse. Lawv nco txog keeb kwm ntawm numismatics li GKChP npib. Kev txiav txim siab ntawm cov ntawv nyiaj no ntawm lwm cov nyiaj npib yog qhov yooj yim, lawv tau minted mus txog rau xyoo 1992, kom txog rau thaum ib tug dav dawb hau tshwm rau ntawm obverse.

gkchp decoding ntawm ib npib
gkchp decoding ntawm ib npib

Daim ntawv theej tsis tshua muaj xyoo 1991 yog npib "10 rubles", bimetallic, cim los ntawm Moscow Mint.

GKCHP npib decryption yog dab tsi
GKCHP npib decryption yog dab tsi

Ib qho piv txwv tsis tshua muaj, minted los ntawm Leningrad Mint, kuj tau nthuav tawm nyob rau hauv lub denomination ntawm "10 rubles" nyob rau hauv 1992.

Cov npe nrov