Txoj kev kos npe ntawm tus cwj pwm. Morphological nta ntawm adjectives

Lus 2023

Cov txheej txheem:

Txoj kev kos npe ntawm tus cwj pwm. Morphological nta ntawm adjectives
Txoj kev kos npe ntawm tus cwj pwm. Morphological nta ntawm adjectives
Anonim

Txhua ntu ntawm kev hais lus yog tus cwj pwm los ntawm qee qhov tshwj xeeb tshwj xeeb rau nws. Qhov no tso cai rau koj los pab pawg cov lus ntawm Lavxias teb sab lus nyob ntawm lawv cov grammatical zog. Lawv tau kawm los ntawm ib qho tshwj xeeb ntawm Lavxias teb sab lus - morphology, uas yuav siv sij hawm mus rau hauv tus account, ntawm lwm yam, cov yam ntxwv uas tsis yog-permanent thiab ruaj khov morphological nta ntawm adjective, noun, verb, thiab lwm yam. ntawm kev hais lus pab kom raug morphologically tsom xam thiab raug tsim cov kab lus thiab kab lus.

Muaj cov tswv yim meej ntawm kev tshuaj xyuas hauv Lavxias. Rau txhua qhov kev ywj pheej ntawm kev hais lus, nws suav nrog lub ntsiab lus ntawm lub ntsiab lus dav dav (nrog rau lo lus nug), morphological nta (ntev thiab tsis tas li), kev ua haujlwm syntactic hauv kab lus.

Permanent kos npe ntawm adjective
Permanent kos npe ntawm adjective

Dab tsi yog qhov adjective

Nov yog ib feem tseem ceeb ntawm kev hais lus uas feem ntau siv hauv cov ntawv piav qhia. Adjectives qhia cov yam ntxwv tas li ntawm cov khoom thiabteb cov lus nug: dab tsi? leej twg? Lawv nkag mus rau hauv kev sib txuas lus nrog cov npe thiab, thaum tsim cov kab lus, pom zoo nrog lawv hauv tus lej, poj niam txiv neej, rooj plaub (cov cim tsis tas li). Ib feem ntawm kev hais lus no tuaj yeem qhia txog cov khoom ntawm ib yam khoom uas tsis muaj kev sib raug zoo (hnub nyoog hluas) lossis los ntawm nws txoj kev sib raug zoo (hnub caij ntuj no, nyuj cov mis nyuj) rau lwm yam khoom thiab tshwm sim. Nyob ntawm tus nqi, peb tus lej yog qhov txawv - qhov no yog qhov ua tau tas mus li - ib qho adjective. Hauv kab lus, cov lus ntawm ntu no ntawm kev hais lus ua lub luag haujlwm ntawm lub ntsiab lus lossis qhov ua piv txwv.

cov cim ntawm cov txheeb ze adjectives
cov cim ntawm cov txheeb ze adjectives

Sib faib ua tus lej

Ib qho lus piav qhia tuaj yeem piav qhia ib yam khoom los ntawm ntau lub ces kaum:

  • hauv cov duab thiab txoj haujlwm hauv qhov chaw: pob puag ncig, txoj kab nqes;
  • size thiab xim: ntoo loj, ntsuab nyom;
  • by lub cev zoo: hnub sov;
  • kev txawj ntse thiab lub cev muaj zog: tus menyuam ruam, tus neeg siab zoo;
  • ib ntus thiab spatially: ntawv xov xwm thaum sawv ntxov, suab nrov hauv nroog;
  • raws li cov khoom uas tau tsim: straw txiv neej;
  • by lub hom phiaj: pw tsaug zog;
  • raws li accessories: txiv ntxawm lub hnab.

Cov cim tsis tu ncua ntawm cov lus qhia yog lawv faib ua peb pawg: zoo (kub kas fes), txheeb ze (lub caij ntuj no taug kev) thiab muaj (txiv neej khi). Lawv yog raws li lub ntsiab lus, uas yuav tsum correlates nrog lub npe.

Quality adjective

Pab pawg tsim txiaj tshaj plaws ntawm ntu ntawm kev hais lus no. zooadjectives yog cov nqa ntawm xws li ib tug feature uas yuav pom nyob rau hauv ib yam khoom mus rau ib tug ntau dua los yog tsawg dua, uas feem ntau manifests nws tus kheej nyob rau hauv tsim ntawm ib tug degree ntawm kev sib piv. Qhov thib ob tseem ceeb cov cuab yeej ntawm pab pawg no yog siv hauv daim ntawv luv luv. Nws tsis hloov los ntawm rooj plaub thiab yog ib qho predicate, uas yog, ib tug predicate, nyob rau hauv ib kab lus.

ruaj khov adjective
ruaj khov adjective

Cov yam ntxwv tas mus li ntawm cov npe ntawm pawg no tshwm sim raws li hauv qab no.

  1. Lo lus tuaj yeem muaj luv luv nrog rau tag nrho: lub rooj loj.
  2. Kev sib piv: daim duab no zoo nkauj dua, lub tsev siab dua, lub zog sib ntaus sib tua, kev ua koob tsheej loj tshaj.
  3. Muaj peev xwm tsim cov pawg lus hauv qab no: adverbs hauv -o, -e: sweeter; abstract nouns: ntsuab; cov ntaub ntawv uas muaj kev ntsuam xyuas cov ntsiab lus: ntse; compound adjectives (los ntawm repetition): delicious-siv; cognate lo lus nrog prefix non-: tsis ruam.
  4. Muaj peev xwm nkag tau ob lub ntsiab lus lossis cov lus sib dhos: kub-txias-sov (tea).
  5. Siv nrog cov lus qhia nrog qib ntawm TXHUA, HEEV, HEEV, thiab lwm yam: nag hnyav heev.

Tsis yog tag nrho cov lus saum toj no tas li ntawm cov lus qhia yuav tsum tau tshwm sim hauv lo lus. Yam tsawg kawg yog ib qho ntawm lawv txaus rau qhov adjective muab cais ua qhov zoo. Los ntawm txoj kev, ib txhia ntawm lawv tsuas muaj ib tug luv luv daim ntawv: yuav tsum, zoo siab, thiab lwm yam.

cov cim ntawm cov txheeb ze adjectives
cov cim ntawm cov txheeb ze adjectives

Ntau lo lus ntawm pawg no tsis yog derivatives: kub, xiav. Tseem muaj cov xwm txheej tsis tu ncuaformations los ntawm nouns (cream xim), verbs (tsav tub), lwm yam adjectives: zoo (zoo li tsaus muag) los yog txheeb ze thiab muaj - golden tes, bearish gait. Kev tsim cov lus tshiab los ntawm kev ntxiv cov hauv paus ib leeg lossis cov lus rov qab yuav tsum tau sau tseg: cov ntaub pua plag dawb-dawb.

Paub tag nrho cov yam ntxwv tso cai rau koj kom raug txiav txim siab qhov tsis tu ncua ntawm cov npe, piv txwv li qeb.

Tsim cov qib kev sib piv

Kev muaj peev xwm ua kom pom nws tus kheej hauv ib qho khoom mus rau qhov ntau dua lossis tsawg dua yog qee zaum pom tau tias yog qhov tsis tu ncua ntawm cov lus qhia. Lub caij no, qeb ntawm qhov kev sib piv tuaj yeem muaj ntau hom ntawv (qhov no yog qhov qhia txog qhov tsis sib xws). Nws yog qhov tshwj xeeb ntawm cov npe zoo.

Tsim cov qib kev sib piv:

zoo (tsis muaj qhov ntsuas)

sib piv

simple

composite

simple

composite

Raws li cov lus qhia, daim ntawv yooj yim yog tsim los ntawm cov lus tom qab (-e, -ee, -she, -aysh-, -eysh), thiab daim ntawv sib xyaw yog tsim los ntawm cov lus tshwj xeeb ntxiv rau daim ntawv tag nrho (ntau, tsawg, feem ntau) lossis yooj yim sib piv degree (tag nrho). Lwm txoj kev yog suppletive, piv txwv li los ntawm lub hauv paus sib txawv: zoo yog qhov zoo tshaj plaws(phooj ywg).

Cov lus siv hauv qhov kev sib piv yooj yim tsis hloov pauv.

Cov cim ntawm cov txheeb ze adjective

Yuav tsum tau muab sau tseg tam sim no tias pawg lus no tsis muaj tej yam zoo li saum toj no. Cov kos npe uas lawv xaiv yuav tsum sib txuas nrog lwm yam khoom lossis kev tshwm sim. Qhov no tau tshwm sim nyob rau hauv qhov muaj peev xwm hloov cov kab lus [noun + adjective] nrog lub synonymous [noun + noun]. Piv txwv li, ib lub laj kab ntoo=ib lub laj kab ntoo. Kev sib raug zoo ntawm ib yam khoom mus rau lwm tus rau cov txheeb ze adjective tuaj yeem ua raws li hauv qab no:

  • by time: lub rooj sib tham xyoo tas los;
  • in place: church chant;
  • by khoom: hlau pas;
  • by purpose: mantel moos.

Tus txheeb ze kuj suav nrog cov lus qhia ua ke, thawj ntu uas yog tus lej: ob-zaj tsev, tus menyuam muaj peb xyoos.

Cov yam ntxwv tsis tu ncua ntawm tus txheeb ze adjective kuj tshwm sim hauv qhov tseeb tias lawv tsuas muaj daim ntawv puv nkaus xwb.

tas li morphological nta ntawm lub adjective
tas li morphological nta ntawm lub adjective

Kev Kawm

Lub hauv paus ntsiab lus rau cov txheeb ze adjectives yog nouns, verbs, adverbs, thiab txoj kev tsim yog suffixal (-n-, -an-, -yan-, -in-, -enn-, -onn-, -l-). Piv txwv li, hazy saib, av nplaum tais, sij hawm qhuab qhia, skimming.

Cov cim tseem ceeb ntawm cov khoom muaj npe

pab pawg no qhia txog qhov khoom ntawm ib tug neeg rau ib tug neeg: ib tug neeg, ib tug tsiaj. Feem ntaulawv tuaj yeem txheeb xyuas los ntawm cov lus nug: leej twg? Lawv, zoo li cov txheeb ze, tsis muaj kev sib piv, cov ntawv puv thiab luv. Cov no yog cov yam ntxwv tseem ceeb ntawm cov npe ntawm pawg no.

Ib yam ntawm cov khoom muaj npe yog lawv cov morphemic muaj pes tsawg leeg. Lawv raug tsim los ntawm cov npe nrog kev pab ntawm cov lus kawg -ov-, -ev-, -in-, -ij-: txiv lub chaw ua haujlwm, niam lub tsho tiv no, hma liab pob ntseg. Yog hais tias rau qhov zoo thiab tus txheeb ze adjectives -i yog qhov kawg (xiav-nws-noj), ces rau muaj adjectives nws yog ib tug suffix pom thaum sau cov transcription (suab muaj pes tsawg leeg) ntawm lo lus. Piv txwv li: fox [l, is, th, -eva].

Permanent kos npe ntawm adjective
Permanent kos npe ntawm adjective

Kev hloov pauv ntawm cov npe ntawm ib qeb mus rau lwm qhov

Lub ntsiab lus thiab cov qauv sau ntawv ntawm ib qho adjective feem ntau yog qhov xwm txheej. Lawv tuaj yeem tau txais lub ntsiab lus piv txwv thiab txav los ntawm ib pawg mus rau lwm qhov. Yog li, tus txheeb ze adjective feem ntau ua raws li qhov zoo, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog nyob rau hauv tej hauj lwm ntawm kos duab (ib qho ntxiv txhais tau tias ntawm expressiveness). Qhov no tuaj yeem pom nyob rau hauv cov piv txwv ntawm cov kab lus nrog adjective IRON: lub qhov rooj yog txheeb ze, lub siab nyiam yog qhov zoo.

Cov txheej txheem thim rov qab tsis yog tas li. Ib tug zoo adjective feem ntau hloov qeb yog hais tias nws yog ib feem ntawm lub sij hawm: lub teeb kev lag luam.

lub ntsiab lus thiab grammatical nta ntawm lub adjective
lub ntsiab lus thiab grammatical nta ntawm lub adjective

Cov lus muaj npe muaj cov khoom zoo sib xws. Thiab ntau zaus qhov no siv rau cov lus txuam nrog tsiaj. Piv txwv li, kev sib xyaw ua kelo lus HARE nrog cov npe sib txawv: qhov (muaj), kaus mom (txheeb ze - los ntawm dab tsi?), cowardice (qualitative).

Cov npe nrov